Axis titles and labels

Chart axes

An axis is a visual representation of a scale, usually a line with reference marks called ticks. Axes can be horizontal or vertical.

Axis titles

The y-axis title is left aligned and placed above the y-axis labels (labels 0-3). The x-axis title is center-aligned and placed underneath the x-axis labels (labels A-C). For typography details, see our page on typography.

It's best to use simple, easy-to-understand descriptors to name your axes titles.

Always use sentence case. This is a capitalization style in which only the first word of a sentence and proper nouns are capitalized, with the rest of the words in lowercase.

Always show the axis title when the nature of displayed data isn't obvious without it.

Axis title (ommited)

The x-axis and y-axis titles may be omitted, because the values are fully explanatory.

Axis title (required)

Both axis titles are required, because without them it's not clear what kind of data is displayed.

Don't use titles that are very long. We recommend a maximum of four words. For example: "Shopper count" instead of "Shopper count during October, November, and December in 2022".

Axis labels

These labels indicate the scope and scale of the data being displayed and should reflect the most important data in a chart. They should be used in a consistent way across the interface.

  • 𝑥 axis labels are center-aligned to their corresponding data point.
  • 𝑦 axis labels are either right-aligned when they are numerical values, or left-aligned when they are categorical values.

For typography details, see our page on typography.

If data is continuous, you can skip some axis labels to not overload the chart. However, we do display missing x-axis labels on hover. This way, we help users to find a specific data point, when scanning through a larger date range.

For bar charts, don't skip axis labels if they describe categories, because in that case the viewer can’t fill in the missing gaps. If the category labels are too long, use a horizontal bar chart instead.

Axis labels


We use standard abbreviations in order to reduce clutter and increase legibility.


We display numbers in a condensed format for thousands and millions. "1,000" becomes "1K", and "1,000,000" becomes "1M".

Punctuation in numbers is language-specific, not currency-specific. When using English, no matter the currency, use periods for decimals and commas to separate groups of thousands.


We use acronyms for currencies. For example: "EUR" instead of "Euro", "JPY" instead of "Japanese Yen".

We never use currency symbols. That's because most currencies don't have their own symbols.


We use the percentage sign to indicate a number or ratio as a fraction of 100.

We round the number up to two digits after the decimal. For example: "21,36%".


When displaying a single date or a date range as the axis label, we use the month abbreviation and the day number. For example: "Jan 1", "Oct 3".

We don't add a year to an axis label, instead we display it on hover in the tooltip.

We use the American date format: "MM.DD.YYYY".


We use the following abbreviations for days: Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun.


We use the following abbreviations for months: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec.


We use the 12-hour time format. For example: "12am", "6pm".